|“Under a ‘business as usual’ scenario, we could face a 40 per cent gap by 2030 between global demand for freshwater, and what can sustainably be supplied”, according to Hongpeng Liu, Chief of Energy Security and Water Resources at UNESCAP, in his keynote address at the Opening Ceremony of ASIA 2012. His paper focused on the Water-Food-Energy nexus, and looked at global challenges at achieving water, food and energy security, intensified today by climate change concerns.|
Mr Chaiporn Siripornpibul, Deputy Director-General of Thailand’s Department of Water Resources, looked at his government’s vision for managing water resources, and some current challenges, including floods, water shortages at some times of the year, and water quality concerns in some areas. He described the major flooding of 2011, and the strategy announced by the Government in February to improve flood management. He pointed out that 32 cities were in flood-prone areas, including Bangkok. He stressed the need to work with all stakeholders, and felt that the implementation of a Water Act would facilitate this.
Mr Lertwiroj Kowattana, Director of Thailand’s Royal Irrigation Department, welcomed participants to his country, and outlined current issues relating to irrigation policy and plans. He said there was potential to irrigate about 10 million ha of land, or which 4 million ha had been developed so far. He drew attention to RID’s policy to utilize the existing major irrigation dams for other purposes, such as hydropower development.
General view of the audience at the opening session of ASIA 2012. Approximately 500 delegates attended from 46 countries. All the countries of the Southeast Asian region with major programmes of water resources development under way were represented, the largest delegations being from Thailand, Bhutan, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and China.
|Secretary-General Dr A.C. Tyagi, gave an opening address on behalf of ICID, one of the ASIA 2012 supporting organizations. He later gave a keynote address entitled “Irrigation: the way forward to food security in an ever changing context”. He called for sustainable and adaptive ways to intensify agricultural production, particularly in the least developed countries. He also stressed the importance of increasing water storage capacity in support of irrigated agriculture.|
Dr Asit K. Biswas, Founder of the Third World Centre for Water Management, and Distinguished Visiting Professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, University of Singapore, gave a keynote address on “Water as an engine for sustainable development in Asia”. He looked at the various influence of water projects on regional development, with examples from a number of Asian countries, and stressed that developing countries should plan and design water resources schemes as an integral component of regional development, from an early stage in the implementation process.
C.V.J. Varma of India, Hon. President of ICOLD and President of India’s Council of Power Utilities, gave an opening address on behalf of ICOLD. He later gave an overview of prospects and challenges in the field of water resources development in India. He spoke of the uneven distribution of water resources in his country, noting also that India’s rainfall fell within about 100 hours during the monsoon season, underling the need for storage schemes. He stressed the importance of multipurpose schemes, for irrigation and energy, and felt there was at present a need to enhance public awareness on the role and benefits of dams.
Prof Xun Jia of China , President of IWRA, gave an opening address on behalf of his association, and later presented a keynote address on the need for adaptive management to deal with the impacts of climate change. He focused on China as an example of a country with a varying climate, which was suffering from water stress as a result of its population and rapid economic development.
Ms Tanushree Sharma of India presented a powerful statement during the Opening Ceremony, on behalf of the young people of Asia, in which she spoke of her appreciation at having been well informed about the benefits of dams from an early age. She called on the governments of developing countries to ensure that balanced information about dams would be included in school curricula. She felt this would establish and reinforce in young minds the importance of conserving and maximizing the use of our scarce resources with minimum wastage. “Being aware from an early stage will not only bear fruitful results in the long run, but will also prove to be a golden investment for forthcoming generations to enjoy our limited resources”, she said.
Niels Nielsen, Joint Secretary of the International Energy Agency’s Hydropower Implementing Agreement, presented an overview of IEA’s Roadmap, which envisages hydropower development increasing by about 70 per cent in terms of energy and capacity, by 2050. “Hydropower development will continue to face hurdles and challenges”, he said, adding that the critical enablers of sustainable development, such as achieving widespread public acceptance and overcoming financial challenges, would need to be managed carefully.
Dr Andy Hughes, UK, chaired a session on dam safety. He also gave a keynote address in the closing plenary session, entitled “Dam engineers – are we ambassadors to dam engineering, or our own worst enemies?”. He pointed out that headlines criticising dams were plentiful, but those praising dams, and the ingenuity and innovative skills of engineers, were virtually absent. He explored ways of raising the status of dam engineers, and of engaging with those who were critical of dams.
|Paul P.M. Butarbuta, Regional Director for Indonesia at South Pole Carbon Asset Management Ltd, who chaired a workshop of carbon finance. In his opening remarks he reviewed the current status of CDM projects globally, and then focused on experience with CDM in Indonesia. He drew attention to some particular challenges for hydro projects.|
Chris Head, UK, making his opening remarks during a workshop he chaired on contractual aspects of hydropower development. His panellists, from right in this photo, were: David Doran of DFDL, Thailand; Peter J. Rae, Consultant, Canada; G. Kayastha, NEA, Nepal; and Sarwono Hardjomldjadi, Special Advisor to the Minister of Public Works, Indonesia. The panel discussed legal frameworks governing hydropower in the Asian region; the question of balancing risk apportionment in construction; FIDIC conditions relating to possession of a site as a causal factor in delays and claims; and, the importance of contract administration in the construction of hydro projects.
|Prof Luis Berga chaired a session on hydrology, floods and climate change. He also gave a keynote address in the session, which reviewed global water-related disasters, and highlighted the number of people affected by floods in Asia. He estimated that about 2 billion people were at risk of flooding, equivalent to 38 per cent of the world population. He drew attention to some major floods in Asia during 2011. He advocated integrated flood management, with a combination of structural and non-structural measures to mitigate the impacts of flooding.|
Judith Plummer of the World Bank, currently studying for her PhD at the University of Cambridge, UK, who chaired an interactive discussion session on financial and economic aspects of hydropower development. In her introductory talk she focused particularly on the economic impact of project delays.
|Francis Griffin of Mott MacDonald, UK, gave a paper on the Tarbela 4th Extension Project in Pakistan, with particular reference to the design for potentially increased sediment flows. He said it has been concluded that the Tarbela reservoir would continue to retain the majority of larger sediments in the reservoir, and a sediment delta would continue to develop. A raised intake with a vertical shaft was therefore being proposed, to extend the safe operating live of two of the tunnels.|
Dr Cecilia Tortajada Vice President of the Third World Centre for water Management, Mexico, who chaired the session on Environment, and also gave a keynote address in the session on social aspects. She discussed stakeholder involvement in decision making. “The challenge”, she said, “is to have stakeholders participating in discussions being fully aware of the facts, and having the accompanying sense of responsibility that commits them to make constructive contributions to the common cause, and stand by group decisions even when the results fail to coincide with their very own interests”.
Dr Malcolm Dunstan, UK, chaired the civil engineering session which focused on materials for dams. He presented a keynote address reviewing progress in the construction of large RCC dams in Asia. He discussed evolving design philosophies, construction rates, and equipment for concrete placement, giving examples of some of the major RCC dams in Asia, such as Longtan in China, and Son La in Vietnam. “The faster an RCC dam is constructed, the better will be the quality and the more economic the structure”, he said.
Prof Pham Hong Giang, President of the Vietnamese National Committee on Large Dams, discussed challenges to water resources development in his country. He drew attention to the fact that of the country’s mean annual rainfall of 2000 mm about 75 per cent fell in just three months, and more than 30 per cent usually in one peak month. He called for more advances in the application of integrated water management, noting that administrative procedures and bureaucracy were responsible for inadequate progress in this respect.
F. Lempérière and M. Ho Ta Khanh of France co-chaired a workshop on P.K. Weirs. In his introductory remarks, F. Lempérière outlined the various roles of P.K. Weirs (which he invented), and described current research and examples of applications. M. Ho Ta Khanh gave details of research conducted in Vietnam, as well as five P.K. Weirs which were under design or construction in the country. The session also incorporated presentations from Belgium (University of Liège) and France (EDF).
|Chhewang Rinzin, Managing Director of Druk Green Power Corp, Bhutan, who co-chaired the session on hydropower potential, and also presented a paper on harnessing and sustaining Bhutan’s hydropower resources. He pointed out the Bhutan’s steep and rugged Himalayan mountains and fast-flowing rivers lent themselves to a huge hydropower potential, estimated at 30 000 MW. Of this, 23 760 MW (76 sites of >10 MW) are considered technically and economically feasible for development. He pointed out that electricity sales to India contribute more than 45 per cent of total internal revenues to the government, and 18 per cent of GDP.|
Dr Hu Xiaobo of the International Centre for Small Hydro Power, who chaired the session on small hydro. In her introduction, she mentioned that the aim of her centre, INSHP, which had been set up by UNIDO and the Chinese Government in 1994, was to promote the global development of small hydro. Asia was the global lead in this field, she said, especially China, where last year alone, 3000 MW of small hydro had been added, and the total SHP capacity of the country had reached 62 GW by 2011. “The greatest momentum for small hydro is in Asia”, Dr Hu said, and she drew attention to the potential in India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea, and a number of Central Asia countries.
Dorji Wangdi of Druk Green Power, Bhutan, discussing problems of silt erosion on the Pelton units installed at the Chhukha powerplant in his country, in one of three sessions on hydro machinery. The sessions were chaired by John Gummer, shown left of the speaker. Other panellists shown in this session are S. Marier of Andritz Hydro, Canada, E.J. Wiborg of Statkraft, Norway, and E. Parkinson of Andritz Hydro, Switzerland.
Some of the speakers who discussed various aspects of dam safety. From left: Dr Malcolm Barker of GHD, Australia, who discussed the importance of safety in design; David Morris of AF Consult, Switzerland, who outlined dam safety policy and practice in Vietnam; and, A. Firman of the Ministry of Public Works, Indonesia, who presented lessons learned from failures, with reference to the case of the Situ Gintung dam in his country, which failed in heavy rainfall in 2009.
|Jo Pereira, from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, discussed the Public Health Action Plan developed to mitigate potential health impacts at the Theun Hinboun Expansion Project in Laos. She has been working in Lao PDR for seven years, as a Public Health Advisor. She was speaking in the session on social aspects of hydropower development. |
Dr Sompop Sucharit, Senior Expert for Irrigation Engineering at Thailand’s Royal Irrigation Department, chaired the session on Water Resources Development and Irrigation. In his introduction, he mentioned that RID was about to celebrate its 110th anniversary. The outlook for the next 10-20 years involved maximizing the benefits of water infrastructure, he said, and with this aim, the various agencies involved in water resources development were working closely together: RID, EGAT, the Provincial Electricity Authority and the Ministry of Energy. He referred to the flood damage of 2011, and spoke of the urgent need to restore irrigation facilities before the next rainy season.
|I. Araki of Nippon Koei, Japan, chaired a session on renewable energy systems for rural electrification, and he also presented a keynote address in the session in which he described a study for the rural electrification masterplan in Lao PDR. He pointed out that the Lao Government has a target to achieve 90 per cent national electrification by 2020. Mini and micro hydro schemes, as well as solar power, are likely to play a key role.|
Prof Xu Zeping of CHINCOLD and IWHR, China, discussed recent developments in the construction of earth core rockfill dams in China, in particular very high structures. He pointed out that the highest ECRD currently under construction in his country, Nuozhadu, will have a height of 261.5 m. He discussed challenges in the selection of materials, and foundation treatment, but said that most high ECRDs in operation had satisfactory performance.
K. Athukorala of the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, discussed climate change and water security in her country, with specific reference to the impacts of climatic extremes on floods and droughts, agricultural production and hydropower generation. She called for climate change research to focus more on sustainable catchment management.
Steve Usher, Deputy Editor of Hydropower & Dams, demonstrates some new features of the recently upgrade H&D website to Dr Andy Hughes (UK), Dr A.C. Tyagi (India), and Dr Malcolm Barker (Australia).
The entrance to the upper exhibition area at ASIA 2012. More than 60 organizations participated, including Thailand’s Department of Water Resources and other governmental organizations, international consultants, equipment suppliers, and professional associations.
|Information on AFRICA 2013, taking place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, next April, was displayed at the Hydropower & Dams stand in Chiang Mai. This will be the first in a new series of regional events to be organized by Aqua~Media International. Many of the Asian delegations in Chiang Mai, who are active in Africa, expressed interest in participating.|
Mr Joseph Ullmer of Andritz Hydro, co-sponsor of the Welcome Reception, welcomes delegates on behalf of his company.
ASIA 2012 delegates enjoy Thai specialities cooked to order during the Welcome Reception, on the roof terrace of Hotel Empress in Chiang Mai.
|Delegates around the Andritz Hydro stand during one of the coffee breaks. Andritz Hydro, a leading supplier of hydro equipment, was one of the main industry sponsors of ASIA 2012.|
A delegation from Indonesia visits the stand of the Hubei Hongcheng General Machinery Co of China to discuss various types of valves for hydro powerplants.
A high level delegation from the Ministry of Electric Power, Myanmar, visits the Voith Hydro stand. Voith was exhibiting some recent developments in large and small hydro machinery.
Chinese and Indian delegates discuss geomembranes at the Carpi stand. Carpi is a leading company in the field of waterproofing systems for dams, canals, tunnels and reservoirs, and has supplied a number of major schemes in Asia.
Dr P. Butarbutar of Indonesia visits the Gugler stand. Gugler specializes in small hydro equipment.
|Dr Xu Zeping of IWHR, China, visits the Entura stand. Entura is a major energy and water project consultant, based in Australia.|
Korean delegates visit the SMEC stand. SMEC was displaying some examples of projects in Malaysia and Laos for which the company had provided engineering consultancy.
A discussion about a recent Asian hydro project, at the Sisgeo stand. Sisgeo specializes in geotechnical instrumentation systems for dams and associated works.
A delegate from Pöyry visits the Herrenknecht stand. Herrenknecht specializes in mechanized tunnelling technology.
Delegates from Nepal and Malaysia visit the Slope Indicator stand to discuss structural sensors and data acquisition systems.
|General view of the upper exhibition area, at the Shangri-La hotel.|
|Delegates relaxing at the Farewell Dinner, which took place on the lawn of the Oriental Dhara Dhevi hotel in Chiang Mai.|
|A performance of traditional Thai dancing during the ASIA 2012 Farewell Dinner.|
|A new edible version of the ASIA 2012 logo was launched at the Farewell Dinner.|
|A dinner cruise on the Chao Phraya river in Bangkok was organized for those ending Study Tour B in Bangkok, and others staying over in Bangkok before their journeys home. This photo shows two ICOLD Honorary Presidents: Prof Luis Berga of Spain, and Mr C.V.J. Varma of India, accompanied by his daughter and grand-daughter, Tanushree Sharma (who spoke in the opening plenary session of ASIA 2012).|
|Celebrating successful outcomes of ASIA 2012: Some of the Aqua-Media team, and others from event managers SureFire Events, with conference Chairman Sultan Alam of France, at the end of the study tour farewell dinner cruise in Bangkok.|